A new book co-edited by a Harvard researcher pulls together a wide range of research on the successes and limitations of the College Board’s Advanced Placement (AP) program.The studies, said Philip Sadler, the F.W. Wright Senior Lecturer in Astronomy at Harvard, fall far short of consensus on many areas.“AP classes give a lot to the top students, but pouring money into the program and trying to give every student an AP education is not efficient or effective,” says Sadler.As the AP program becomes increasingly widespread in America’s public high schools, the student demographics that it serves have shifted and rapidly expanded. More than 25 percent of public high school seniors graduating last May took at least one AP test.The elite students the program once catered to have been joined by hundreds of thousands of students who may be less prepared for the rigors of AP course work. That means that the number of test-takers who do poorly on AP exams is growing, and some critics have begun to question the effectiveness of the program.Now, in “AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program” (Harvard Education Press, 2010), researchers present the most comprehensive picture yet of who really benefits from the millions spent each year on AP programs across the country.Most of the studies presented in the book focus on AP mathematics and science courses. Sadler is quick to point out the difficulties of conducting research on the program.“We can’t run control groups in ‘placebo’ classes,” he said. “Even with the best statistical tools, there is a large gray area.”Even so, Sadler and his fellow researchers agree that the AP program has expanded to reach the point of diminishing returns. As more students are pushed to take the courses, the number of students enrolled in them without sufficient foundational knowledge increases. Unprepared students do not gain more from an AP course than they would from a standard course, and schools promoting the program often end up funding the unnecessary failure of students who are pushed to take courses for which they are not ready.Sadler stresses that the effectiveness of paying to bring the AP to new districts must be analyzed school by school. One study in the book looks at Philadelphia, where the city has spent millions of dollars bringing the program to all of its public schools. The students passing AP tests, while low-income, overwhelmingly attend schools that use selective admissions. Students of similar income who attend the city’s regional high schools have a failure rate of at least 41 percent.“We found that AP courses can give strong students excellent preparation for college courses, especially if they earn a 5 on the AP exam,” Sadler says. “However, AP course work does not magically bestow advantages on underprepared students who might be better served by a course not aimed at garnering college credit.”
The basic idea of this promotion is direct contact of wineries with customers, distributors and restaurant owners, and exchange of information on supply and demand, and their wines in Berlin were presented by wineries Badel 1862, Belje, Dalmacijavino, PZ Vrbnik and Kutjevo. The fact that our wines are becoming more and more recognizable in Germany is supported by the numbers. In 2017, we exported 786 tons worth over 2 million euros, and in the first nine months of 2018 we exceeded exports of 700 tons and reached a value of 1,9 million euros. “I believe that indigenous varieties such as Teran, Pošip or Debit are a key factor for international positioning. Reasonable prices are also an advantage. But consumers need to be made aware, more educated about such events”, Said the presentation leader Suad Zlatić and pointed out that it is important to adapt to the market:”From experience I can say that if a foreigner cannot read č, ž or š, he will not order that wine”. Despite limited production and thus weak exports, Vrbnička žlahtina is well known to the Germans. “We account for only 10 percent of total exports, but we are here for promotion. Croatia is no longer an anonymous country, we are known in sports, tourism, so why not be by wine”, Said Marino Vladić, director of PZ Vrbnik. By branding Croatia as a wine country, we put the wind in the back of wine exports and that is why we insist on wine promotions. It is easy with the Germans, they are our loyal visitors during the tourist season so they have the opportunity not only to try our wines but also to tie memories”, Said Luka Burilović, President of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce. The Croatian Chamber of Commerce in the Berlin restaurant Oxymoron organized a promotional dinner where wines gathered under the brand were presented Vina Croatia – mosaic wines. Luka Zadro, CEO of Dalmacijavina, said that this promotional dinner was an ideal opportunity to negotiate deals with new distributors, given that Dalmacijavina started exporting to Germany only at the end of last year.